View
Linked contentAuto-destruct in 59 days

Updated: Install Chromedriver on Linux

Can be also installed via apt image.

Repeats

How to fix: Session hash does not get updated when using "merge!"

tl;dr: Do not use merge! for session hashes. Use update instead.

Outline

Let's assume you're modifying the Rails session. For simplicity, let's also assume your session is empty when you start (same effect when there is data):

# In our example, we're in a Rack middleware
request = Rack::Request.new(env)
request.session.merge! :hello => 'Universe'
request.session
=> {}

Wat?

Even worse: When you inspect your request.session like above (e.g. in a debugger shell, o…

Repeats

Running external commands with Open3

There are various ways to run external commands from within Ruby, but the most powerful ones are Open3.capture3 and Open3.popen3. Since those can do almost everything you would possibly need in a clean way, I prefer to simply always use them.

Behind the scenes, Open3 actually just uses Ruby's spawn command, but gives you a much better API.

Open3.capture3

Basic usage is

```ruby
require 'open3'

stdout_str, error_str, status = Open3.capture3('/some/binary', 'with', 'some', 'args')
if status.success?…

Upgrading Ruby from 1.8.7 to 2.3.5

Suggested Workflow

Set the ruby version in .ruby-version to 2.3.5, then perform these steps one by one, fixing errors as they occur:

1) Update gems as listed below, and bundle
2) Boot a Rails console - see below for a list of changes you will probably need
3) Run Specs with --backtrace option
4) Run Cucumber features (with Geordi's --debug option)
5) When all tests are green, look through your Gemfile and remove as many version constraints as possible.
6) Boot the application in different environements to spot further issues, e…

Repeats

How to start Terminator with split screens and custom commands running

Starting Terminator with split screens is quite simple: Just store a layout and start Terminator with the --layout <your layout> option.

However, if you want to run custom commands in your terminals, you need to do some work to keep these terminals from closing after a command exits. You accomplish this by tweaking bash to run a command before actually starting.

Pimp your .bashrc

Add this to the end of .bashrc:

```
# hack to keep a bash open when starting it with a command
[[ $startup_cmd ]] && { declare +x $startup_cmd; eval…

CSS: How to find out the rendered font in chrome

The rendered font often depends on the local font your system provides, therefore you often find a rule like below in the computed style for an element:

font-family: Menlo,Monaco,Lucida Console,Liberation Mono,DejaVu Sans Mono,Bitstream Vera Sans Mono,Courier New,monospace,serif

This means if your system has a font named Menlo, it will render the text with this font. Otherwise it will try Monaco and so on. For the last two fallback options the system is free to use any monospace font or if not present any serif font. At lea…

Fixing "identify: not authorized"

Ubuntu has decided to disable PDF processing because ImageMagick and the underlying Ghostscript had several security issues.

When your Ghostscript is up to date (and receiving updates regularly), you can safely reactivate PDF processing on your computer like this:

  1. Open /etc/ImageMagick-6/policy.xml
    • For older versions of Ubuntu (or possibly ImageMagick, the Path is /etc/ImageMagick/policy.xml
  2. Remove/Comment lines after <!-- disable ghostscript format types -->

If you need it enabled for an…

Deprecated

Disable the Java plugin in browsers to avoid drive-by attacks

Every now and then, Java is subject to security issues where code can break out of Java's sandbox and obtain more privileges than it should.
In almost all cases, such issues are actively being used for drive-by attacks via the Java browser plug-in, for example by malicious ad banners.

Since removing Java completely is not an option for us, make sure the Java plug-in is always disabled in every browser, even when you have updated Java on your machine.
Please re…

Linked contentRepeats

Ruby's percent notation can do more than strings

Percent Notation

We already know that that we can create strings using the percent notation:

%{<foo="bar's ton">} is perfectly fine Ruby.

Modifier

But there is more. The curly brackets ({}) are interchangable with most unicode characters (e.g. square brackets[]).
Furthermore, you can add a "modifier" to the percent notation to control the return type of th…

Linked contentRepeats

Bash: Build and execute command lines on the fly with "xargs"

xargs is a powerful bash tool that can take input from $STDIN and pass it to a given command. I.e. you can do the following:

$> cat tmp/parallel_cucumber_failures.log
features/authentication.feature:33
features/backend/pages.feature:5
features/backend/pages.feature:60

$> cat tmp/parallel_cucumber_failures.log | xargs geordi cucumber
# Running features
> Only: features/authentication.feature:33 features/backend/pages.feature:5 features/backend/pages.feature:60
...
Repeats

How to make changes to a Ruby gem (as a Rails developer)

At makandra, we've built a few gems over the years. Some of these are quite popular: spreewald (475k downloads), active_type (330k downloads), and geordi (210k downloads) for example (numbers from 2018).

Developing a Ruby gem is different from developing Rails applications, with the biggest difference: there is no Rails. This means:

  • no defined structure (neither for code nor directories)
  • no autoloading of classes, i.e. you need to require all files yourself
  • no [active_support](https://api.rubyonrails.org/classes/ActiveSupport.ht…

SSH: X-Forwarding

If you need to run a program on a remote machine (e.g. to your office PC) with a graphical UI (and you trust the remote machine), you can use SSH X-Forwarding. I sometimes use this to connect to a virtual machine installed on my work PC from my home office.

Forwarding X over SSH

To use X forwarding, when connecting to the remote machine, and add -X to the ssh call. Now, when you start a program with a UI (e.g. virtualbox) in that SSH session, a window will open on your local machine. It will not be particularly …

Linked contentRepeats

AppArmor in Linux

This note is a reminder that there is something called AppArmor that could cause weird errors ("File not found", "Can't open file or directory", …) after configuration changes, e.g. when changing MySQL's data directory.

Remember to have a look at AppArmor's daemon configuration (usually at /etc/apparmor.d/) if you change daemon configuration and run into errors such as the one above.

How to fix: Corrupt special characters in ZIPs on Linux

When you receive a ZIP file from a Windows user, umlauts and other non-latin1 characters in filenames may look corrupt, and probably will be corrupt when extracting the ZIP file.

The reason is encoding: Such archives are probably using Codepage 850. I am serious, 1987 is calling.

Fortunately, the unzip command can handle such files like so:

unzip -O CP850 file.zip

Interestingly enough, Rubyzip also compresses files that way. Probably so files look alright to Windows users.

3 ways to run Spring (the Rails app preloader) and how to disable it

spring ...

The most obvious way to use spring is to call it explicitly:

spring rails console
spring rake db:migrate

Binstubs

Binstubs are wrapper scripts around executables. In Rails they live inside bin/. If you run spring binstub --all, your binstubs will be using Spring.

bin/rails console
bin/rake db:migrate

bundle exec rails ...

Bundle exec is inconsistent when it comes to spring. Some commands will use it, some won't.

```
bundle exec rails console # starts Spring…

Repeats

Do not use transparent PNGs for iOS favicons

Safari on iOS accepts an apple-touch-icon favicon that is used for stuff like desktop bookmarks. Always define a solid background color for them.

If you use PNGs with a transparent background, Safari will use just set a black background on your pretty icon. This is almost never what you want.
You can fix that by applying a white background via ImageMagick like this:

convert a...
Repeats

How to find out what is running on a port on a remote machine

By convention, common protocols use a defined port, like 80 for HTTP or 443 for HTTPS.

You can use nmap to find out what service is running behind a given port, and most often see some details about it. This can be helpful if servers don't offer the services you expect for some ports. If you'd like to see what ports are listing on your local machine, you might want to use netstat instead of nmap.

Note that nmap's service discovery may trigger several requests.

Example

When using nmap, adding the -A switch …

Repeats

Whenever: Don't forget leading zeros for hours!

Whenever is a Ruby gem that provides a nicer syntax for writing and deploying cron jobs.

Leading zeros are important for whenever if you use the 24-hours format!

This schedule.rb:

every 1.day, at: '3:00', roles: [:primary_cron] do
  runner 'Scheduler.delay.do_things'
end

will lead to this crontab entry (crontab -l):

0 15 * * * /bin/bash -l -c 'cd /var/www/my-project/releases/20180607182518 && bin/rails runner -e production '\''Scheduler.delay.do_things'\'''

Which would run on 3pm instead of 3am.

Using the l…

This website uses cookies to improve usability and analyze traffic.
Accept or learn more