Tod: A Gem for handling daytime without a date
Tod is a gem for working with daytimes.
Thus SQL has a
time datatype for storing time of day in the format
hh:mm:ss, neither Ruby nor Rails themselves offer an elegant way to deal with day times.
DateTime both handle daytime values AND calendar date, using them to only store the time of day will end in inconsistent and thus confusing data, e. g.
Time.new will initialize with the current Time in your Timezone,
DateTime.new initializes at January 1, at an undefined year, without a timezone offset. Comparing or calculating with both datastructures mixed is prone to fail in unpredictable situations, because of the sometimes different time zones and the different behaviors of day times, which sometimes might not even exists (think of time switch from summertime to wintertime in different locations, etc.).
Try to avoid using time zones whenever possible.
When you want to only deal with day times, the handy gem
Tod (Time of day) will make your day.
Tod will add methods to the
DayTime classes to extract hours, minutes and seconds and convert them to a
Tod::TimeOfDay class. You wont have to worry about different time zones anymore.
Tod offers you many convenient methods for parsing, comparing, adding/subtracting and formatting time of day objects, some of them are listed below:
Tod::TimeOfDay.parse "15:30" # => 15:30:00 Tod::TimeOfDay.parse "3:30:45pm" # => 15:30:45 Tod::TimeOfDay.new(8) < Tod::TimeOfDay.new(9) # => true Tod::TimeOfDay.new(23,59,45) + 30 # => 00:00:15 Tod::TimeOfDay.new(22,5,15).strftime("%I:%M:%S %p") # => "10:05:15 PM"
Converting from different time representations is straightforward, too:
Time.now.to_time_of_day # => 11:35:20 DateTime.now.to_time_of_day # => 11:35:20 DateTime.new.to_time_of_day # => 00:00:00 Tod::TimeOfDay(Tod::TimeOfDay.new(8, 30)) # => 08:30:00 Tod::TimeOfDay("09:45") # => 09:45:00 Tod::TimeOfDay.parse("09:45") # => 09:45:00 Tod::TimeOfDay(Time.new(2014, 1, 1, 12, 30)) # => 12:30:00 Tod::TimeOfDay(Date.new(2014, 1, 1)) # => 00:00:00
When storing time of day data in your
ActiveRecord model, you can simply use
:time, which is an SQL datatype. In your model class, you'll have to tell Tod to take care of the serialization of the particular attribute and you're good to go.
class ModelWithTod < ActiveRecord::Base serialize :tod_attribute, Tod::TimeOfDay end
If necessary, you can convert
Tod::TimeOfDay objects to
ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone. Avoid time zones if possible. It will make things complicated.
In case you have to consider time zones in your application anyway, here are some useful resources: