How Rails and MySQL are handling time zones
The information in this card is not entirely correct for recent versions of Rails. Please see our card on time zones in Rails 5+ for up-to-date information.
When working with times and dates in Rails applications, you need to deal with the following problem:
- In Rails,
Timeobjects have a time zone. You can get the zone name by doing
- This zone is considered when doing time calculations, e.g. 10 AM CEST minus 8 AM UTC is zero.
- A datetime in MySQL does not have a zone. It just stores the literal string "2010-05-01 12:00:00".
- That means that Rails must make assumptions about timestamps loaded from and written to MySQL.
Rails has two completely different modes of dealing with this.
We also prefer to use mode 1.
- This is the default when you create a new Rails 2 application, but not when you create a Rails 3 application or newer.
- You should be using this if you can get away with it, because option 2 is a lot more pain.
- In this mode Rails assumes that your application lives in the same time zone as your server's local zone settings.
- In this mode ActiveRecord will not try to convert times coming out of
Time.parsewhen saving or loading a record.
- Find out the locale zone of your server by doing
dateon the shell. E.g. our main application servers are running on Berlin (CEST) time, but this will differ on other machines.
- Rails also assumes that
datetimefields in MySQL represent times in your local zone. E.g.
Post.last.created_at.zonewill be "CEST" if your server is running in "CEST".
- This mode will work for you if your application should display times in the server's local zone.
- This mode will not work for you if your server is running on UTC and you want to display times for German users.
- When "turning off" time zones, one must not use
Time.currentany more, since there's always a time zone (UTC). Actually, you cannot "turn off" time zones, just try to ignore them.
In order to disable time zone conversion in Rails 2, open
config/environment.rb and comment or remove the config.time_zone line:
# config.time_zone = 'Berlin'
In order to disable time zone conversion in Rails 3 or newer, open
config/application.rb and add the following:
config.active_record.default_timezone = :local config.active_record.time_zone_aware_attributes = false
keep the time zone set to your local time zone (i.e. "Berlin" for us).
- This is the default when you create a new Rails 3 application, but not when you create a Rails 2 application.
- In this mode Rails keeps all
Timeobject in the configured zone, but stores them in MySQL as UTC times (regardless of the time zone you chose).
- E.g. when an ActiveRecord has a Time field set to "2010-09-03 12:00:00 CEST", it will be stored in MySQL as "2010-09-03 10:00:00" and converted back when loading the record.
- In this mode you can switch time zones (even per request) without any problems, all conversions are handled.
- There is an important caveat that the time returned by
Time.parsewill not be converted automatically when it is used for MySQL queries (because it is not a
TimeWithZone). You need to use
Time.zone.parse, etc. everywhere. You should read for a pretty exhaustive list of all the things you need to pay attention to.
- If you require some code that does
Time.parsefor you (e.g. a gem), you need to monkey patch this or be out of luck.
- For a list of all available time zones, run
rake time:zones:all. The zone string for Germany is "Berlin".
- Take care when you set this configuration option at a point where you already have records in the database. If your server was not running with a UTC time zone, all your timestamps will be off by some hours because of the changed assumption Rails is making about those timestamps now. In this case, you have to correct all times in the database manually.
config.time_zoneis the default zone for a new application process. If your application should support user-configurable time zone, you can just set
Time.zone = "..."in a
In order to enable time zone conversion in either Rails 2 or Rails 3, open
config/environment.rb and define your time zone:
config.time_zone = 'Berlin'
Again, please read thefrom before you do anything in an application with time zones enabled.
Flaky tests are tests that sometimes fail for no obvious reason. They are the plague of many end-to-end (E2E) test suites that automate the browser through tools like Capybara and Selenium.
Join our free training event and learn to fix any flaky test suite, even in large legacy applications.